Dallas Fed Unplugs Oil Bulls, Warns of Liquidity Crunch, Contagion

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“Negative ripple effects”

The rally in crude oil has been red hot. In the three weeks since February 11, WTI shot up a short-crushing 34% to $34.69 a barrel at the moment. Now the talk in the oil patch is at what price these desperate shale oil drillers will once again increase production.

Continental Resources CEO John Hart and Whiting Petroleum CEO Jim Volker told analysts this week that they’d step on the accelerator once oil reaches the $40 to $45 range. After all, drillers have to produce oil to be able to service their mountain of debts. They can’t just switch to selling T-shirts.

Alas, that looming increase in production won’t help deal with the glut. And a glut it is.

Dallas Fed President Robert Kaplan hammered this home as part of a wide-ranging speech today. And he wasn’t speaking only for himself or stating his own wayward opinion. Instead, he started out his comments concerning oil with this: “It is our view at the Dallas Fed that….” So this is official.

The Dallas Fed, whose district in addition to Texas includes northern Louisiana and southern New Mexico, figured that global oil production in 2016 will exceed consumption by an average of 1 million barrels per day. So that would amount to adding another 300 million barrels by year-end to the already ballooning crude oil inventories around the world.

In OECD countries, inventories continue to rise, he said, and are now at “roughly 400 million barrels above the historical five-year average.”

But the excess of production over consumption is coming down to 500,000 barrels per day by the end of the year, not because production will decline, but because consumption in 2016 is expected to grow by about 1.2 million barrels per day:

These excess inventory levels will increase through 2016, and there is now some discussion in the industry about potential limits in storage capacity.

We estimate that the market will not find some degree of daily production/consumption balance until mid-2017 and, at that point, excess inventories will begin to decline.

Several factors and assumptions, based on data over the past several months, underlie this outlook, he said:

  • The official return of Iran to the world oil markets
  • Increased supply from OPEC nations
  • Slower-than-expected supply declines from US producers despite substantial cuts in drilling and capital spending
  • And slower-than-expected demand from emerging-market countries.

But he added that the outlook would be “meaningfully impacted by a change in OPEC production strategy” – in one direction or the other.



In this scenario, the glut would continue to get worse until mid-2017 and then it would, well, continue but it would gradually deflate as the by then breath-taking crude-oil inventories would be inching off their peak levels toward something resembling normal.

And this assumes that that $45-dollar WTI won’t kick off another shale-oil production boom in the US, in which case all bets are off. Kaplan:

Given these various factors, the ultimate timing of market production/consumption balance remains uncertain. In the meantime, we expect to see continued low prices and high levels of price volatility, as well as more bankruptcies, mergers and restructurings in the energy industry.

In early January, he’d called this phenomenon, the “‘even lower for even longer’ price outlook.” At the time, WTI traded above $30 a barrel. A month later, it dropped to $26 a barrel. Now it’s at $34.

But this nightmare in the energy sector isn’t contained to the oil patch. It has reached the financial instruments that could impact financial stability.

Oil-and-gas related bonds make up “a material portion” of junk bonds outstanding, he said. So the spreads between the yield of junk-rated corporate bonds and Treasuries have widened, and at the lower end of the scale, they have totally blown out. The average spread between Treasuries and corporate bonds rated CCC or lower is now over 19%. And companies with these kinds of funding costs are feeling the noose tightening around their necks.

Bond ETFs and mutual funds are loaded up with these bonds. Funds that have liquidity obligations that allow investors to pull their money out on a daily basis can come under heavy pressure when they face a wave of redemptions by spooked investors. This happened in December when Third Avenue’s Focused Credit Fund imploded, the first bond fund to implode since the Financial Crisis.

Corporate bonds are by nature illiquid, particularly when the market swoons. So funds sell what they can sell: the most liquid, high-quality paper first. Initially, there aren’t a lot of losses, and folks who get their money out first remain unscathed. But those who wait until the fund collapses get brutalized. This first-mover’s advantage is precisely what triggers runs on bond funds.

Thus, when mayhem in energy bonds causes investors to head for the door, funds are forced to sell bonds “more broadly in order to meet liquidity needs,” Kaplan said. Then the entire corporate bond market, the lifeblood of over-leveraged Corporate America, gets in trouble. And so he mused:

This is a good example of the potential negative ripple effects that can come from persistent weakness in the energy sector.

The bond market has enough problems already. Read…  Corporate Default Rate Jumps Past Lehman Moment



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  15 comments for “Dallas Fed Unplugs Oil Bulls, Warns of Liquidity Crunch, Contagion

  1. Sgt Milstar
    Mar 3, 2016 at 9:35 pm

    So when do the Dallas FED bank members begin taking haircuts on their bonds in the oil patch?

  2. Jonathan
    Mar 3, 2016 at 9:40 pm

    “And this assumes that that $45-dollar WTI won’t kick off another shale-oil production boom in the US, in which case all bets are off.”

    And this also assumes the world economy doesn’t crash spectacularly while oil producers then will get even more desperate for cash flow.

    • night-train
      Mar 4, 2016 at 4:59 am

      I thought that the possibility of a global market crunch slowing consumption was noticeably overlooked as well. Must have gotten left out of the script by accident.

  3. Bigfoot
    Mar 3, 2016 at 10:20 pm

    Does anybody have any data on what the prices/terms/duration/etc. is for the various storage facilities? Link?

  4. Uncle Frank
    Mar 4, 2016 at 8:20 am

    Texas crude oil output finally in decline, but more job losses likely

    HOUSTON – Finally, in January 2016, 19 months into the crude oil price collapse, Texas producers recovered less crude oil than in the same month the previous year. But the economic contraction gripping the upstream oil and gas industry squeezed tighter, forcing more layoffs, idling more drilling rigs, and driving well-permitting to a record monthly low.

    http://www.gosanangelo.com/business/energy/texas-crude-output-finally-peaks-2d2924f6-5244-1280-e053-0100007f5a48-370989761.html

  5. NY Geezer
    Mar 4, 2016 at 8:23 am

    “Continental Resources CEO John Hart and Whiting Petroleum CEO Jim Volker told analysts this week that they’d step on the accelerator once oil reaches the $40 to $45 range.”

    When/if the price reaches $40-$45, they could buy 12-18 month hedges (or longer) in the $40-$45 range, which they have apparently determined will provide enough cash flow to cover the bare bones cost of renewed pumping in their best plays and also service debts into 2017 (and beyond if longer hedges are bought).

    That should keep their companies solvent while they help drive down the price of oil and bankrupt other producers.

    Its obvious that since all now know the next hedge buying target of these 2 leaders, others will buy similar hedges and and thus put even more pressure on the price of oil and increase the distress in the bond market.

    However, the hedges won’t be worth anything if the counter parties fail as Bear Stearns did in the 2008-2009 crash.

    • chris hauser
      Mar 4, 2016 at 2:25 pm

      who shall sell the other side of the hedge?

      first mover advantage can work for both or the either of buyers and sellers, depending on the market. the scenery only changes for the lead dog……

  6. Colin
    Mar 4, 2016 at 8:37 am

    There’s no reason to think oil production will see a huge increase when prices go back up. There’s hope in other countries(Canada, Argentina) but it’s very possible the US shale boom is over.

  7. Ptb
    Mar 4, 2016 at 10:29 am

    1% more is being pumped than is being consumed. Hmmm, doesn’t take much to call something a ” glut” these days.

  8. Yoshua
    Mar 4, 2016 at 1:30 pm

    The U.S is consuming 7 billion barrels a year.
    The U.S has 40 billion proven barrels in place.
    That’s 6 years of oil independence.

    The Saudis must have looked at these numbers and said to them selves: O’boy are we smoked !

    • Bruce
      Mar 4, 2016 at 4:20 pm

      At those prices the US can’t make money the Saudis can time is on the Saudis side and they know it

      • Toddy
        Mar 4, 2016 at 7:54 pm

        Damn straight. As explained by Don Quijones on this blog, the “Saudis” as you say, drive down price to kill off US shake oil production and then once prices are back to high profit, it’s going to be smoother sailing for them.

      • MG
        Mar 5, 2016 at 9:00 pm

        The saudis need a price of 90+ to balance their prodigal budget.

  9. Chicken
    Mar 4, 2016 at 9:06 pm

    I don’t recall how long it’s been since growth exceeded 2%, anybody?

  10. Chicken
    Mar 4, 2016 at 9:51 pm

    Oh, and it always amazes me how “proactive” FED governors are, as if they spend all their time on the Guadalupe trout fishing, taking a hard earned break from watching themselves on tee-vee.

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